1. Ecosystems are made up of three elements: the biotope, the biocenosis and the relationships between them.
2. The biotope is made up of the non-living components, such as water, rocks, air, soil, light and humidity.
4. The relationships in an ecosystem. All the components of an ecosystem are related because they depend on each other.
5. An ecosystem is in balance if the relationships between the components are stable and contribute to the survival of the ecosystem´s living organisms.
7. In an aquatic ecosystem, the biotope is covered with water. It can be saltwater, the open ocean or freshwater.
9. A mixed ecosystem is located in places where land and water meet, such as beaches, deltas and marshes.
10. All living beings are adapted to function in their particular ecosystem and these adaptions can be anatomical or behavioural.
11. Anatomical adaptions are the physical features of a living being´s body that help it survive in its ecosystem.
12. Behavioural adaptions are the characteristics of a living being´s behaviour that help it survive in its ecosystem.
13. According to feeding relationships, the living beings can be producers, consumers or decomposers.
16. Consumers can be herbivores if they feed on producers, carnivores if they feed on other consumers, and omnivores if they feed on producers, consumers and even decomposers.
17. Descomposers transform the remains of other living beings into nutrients, such as fungi and some bacteria.